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    首批罕见病目录Borderclampdowncoulddisruptwebofcollaborations

    文章来源:Erron   时间:2020-01-06

      首批罕见病目录Border clampdown could disrupt web of collaborationsBorder clampdown could disrupt web of collaborations President Donald Trumps executive order banning U.S. entry of citizens from seven nations is on hold, but perhaps not for long. The travel ban, meant to last for 90 days as visa vetting procedures were overhauled, roiled students and researchers from Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen. A court last month overturned it, but Trump has vowed to issue a streamlined order.Just how many scientists from each country might be hit? Iran, with its large academic community, seemed likely to top the list, an impression borne out by new analyses of publications and mobility data from Elseviers SciVal and Scopus databases (below) and Sciences own analysis of data from ORCID, a nonprofit with rich data about scientists professional affiliations (below). Irans collaborations with U.S. scientists are nearly on par with Irelands and "are quite diverse," notes Elseviers Martin Edling Andersson in Amsterdam, who helped compile the data. Homes away from homeWhere do researchers from the seven banned nations go? For most of the countries, the United States and United Kingdom are top draws. .bar_st0{fill:#C42126;}.bar_st1{fill:#EA9488;}.bar_st2{fill:#BCBEC0;}.bar_st3{fill:#86994C;}.bar_st4{fill:none;}.bar_st5{font-family:Benton Sans Condensed,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-weight:bold;}.bar_st6{font-size:15.0447px;}.bar_st7{fill:#9DCDE4;}.bar_st8{fill:#085F80;}.bar_st9{fill:#EFC9B9;}.bar_bar_st10{fill:#529DBB;}.bar_bar_st11{fill:#C9E3F0;}.bar_bar_st12{fill:#811A1D;}.bar_bar_st13{fill:#BBC771;}.bar_bar_st14{fill:#005E7F;}.bar_bar_st15{font-family:Benton Sans Condensed,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;}.bar_bar_st16{fill:#C4161C;}.bar_bar_st17{fill:#529DBA;}.bar_bar_st18{fill:#DF897C;}.bar_bar_st19{fill:#9CCDE4;}.bar_bar_st20{fill:#A7A9AC;}.bar_bar_st21{fill:#EFC8B8;}IranIraqLibyaSomaliaSudanSyriaYemenFranceIndiaCanadaU.S.KenyaEgyptU.K.MalaysiaOtherUgandaSouth Africa(Graphics)G. Grullón/Science; (Data)ORCID Made with the USATwo scientific powerhouses—China and the United Kingdom—co-authored the largest numbers of publications with the United States, but Iran ranks highly, considering how heavily the country has been sanctioned in recent years. Weighting citations by field revealed that Iran-U.S. collaborations in medicine and computer science had the highest impact, on average. Sudan’s high citation count is due largely to papers on humanitarian crises in Darfur and South Sudan..scatter_st0{fill:none;}.scatter_st1{font-family:Benton Sans Condensed,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;}.scatter_st2{font-size:13.5194px;}.scatter_st3{font-family:Benton Sans Condensed,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-weight:bold;}.scatter_st4{font-size:15.5993px;}.scatter_st5{fill:none;stroke:#F5F5F5;stroke-width:0.5828;stroke-linejoin:bevel;stroke-miterlimit:10;}.scatter_st6{fill-rule:evenodd;clip-rule:evenodd;fill:#BCBEC0;}.scatter_st7{fill-rule:evenodd;clip-rule:evenodd;fill:#9CCDE4;}.scatter_st8{fill-rule:evenodd;clip-rule:evenodd;fill:#005E7F;}.scatter_st9{fill-rule:evenodd;clip-rule:evenodd;fill:#529DBA;stroke:#FFFFFF;stroke-width:0.832;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-miterlimit:10;}.scatter_st10{fill-rule:evenodd;clip-rule:evenodd;fill:#C9E3F0;}.scatter_st11{fill-rule:evenodd;clip-rule:evenodd;fill:#529DBA;}.scatter_st12{fill:none;stroke:#000000;stroke-width:0.832;stroke-miterlimit:10;}.scatter_st13{fill:none;stroke:#000000;stroke-width:0.7604;stroke-miterlimit:10;}.scatter_st14{font-size:14.5594px;}.scatter_st15{fill:none;stroke:#000000;stroke-width:0.624;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:bevel;stroke-miterlimit:10;}.scatter_st16{fill:none;stroke:#939598;stroke-width:1.04;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:bevel;stroke-miterlimit:10;stroke-dasharray:2.0799,2.0799;}.scatter_st17{fill-rule:evenodd;clip-rule:evenodd;fill:#C4161C;}.scatter_st18{fill:none;stroke:#FFFFFF;stroke-width:6.2397;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-miterlimit:10;}.scatter_st19{font-family:Benton Sans Condensed,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-style:italic;}.scatter_st20{fill:none;stroke:#000000;stroke-width:1.0252;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:bevel;stroke-miterlimit:10;}.scatter_st21{fill:none;stroke:#FFFFFF;stroke-width:6.2397;}.scatter_st22{fill:none;stroke:#FFFFFF;stroke-width:4.1598;}.scatter_st23{fill:#FFFFFF;}.scatter_st24{fill:#005E7F;}.scatter_st25{fill:#C4161C;}.scatter_st26{fill:#529DBA;}.scatter_st27{fill:#BCBEC0;}.scatter_st28{fill:#9CCDE4;stroke:#FFFFFF;stroke-width:6.2397;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-miterlimit:10;}.scatter_st29{fill:#9CCDE4;}.scatter_st30{fill:#C9E3F0;}.scatter_st31{fill:none;stroke:#939598;stroke-width:1.0091;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:bevel;}.scatter_st32{fill:none;stroke:#939598;stroke-width:1.0091;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:bevel;stroke-dasharray:2.0531,2.0531;}.scatter_st33{fill:none;stroke:#939598;stroke-width:0.9995;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:bevel;stroke-miterlimit:10;stroke-dasharray:2.0799,2.0799;}.scatter_st34{font-family:Benton Sans Condensed,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-weight:bold;}.scatter_st35{font-size:18.7192px;}.scatter_st36{fill:none;stroke:#000000;stroke-width:0.766;stroke-miterlimit:10;}.scatter_st37{fill:none;stroke:#939598;stroke-width:1.04;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:bevel;}.scatter_st38{fill:none;stroke:#939598;stroke-width:1.04;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:bevel;stroke-dasharray:2.0531,2.0531;}5 million500,00050,00050005005050Citations110100100010,000100,000SomaliaYemenLibyaSudanIraqIranJapanChinaMartiniqueCubaMaldivesCanadaTurkmenistanU.K.Data medianU.K.South AfricaBahamasBahamasSyriaSyriaEUTravel ban target countriesAsiaOtherAfricaNorth AmericaEU countries5 million50000110100100010,000100,000MaltaGermanyIrelandMiddle Eastern countries5 million50000110100100010,000100,000BahrainTurkeyIsraelIran(Graphics)G. Grullón/Science; (Data)Elsevier’s SciVal and Scopus database A potent Persian diasporaSince 1996, scholars who list Iranian affiliations on publications have flocked to the United States and other countries. For this analysis, overseas stints are classified as “transitory”—shorter than 2 years—or as longer, “migratory” stays. .sankey_st0{fill:none;stroke:#005E7F;stroke-width:87.8949;}.sankey_st1{fill:none;stroke:#529DBA;stroke-width:43.6429;}.sankey_st2{fill:none;stroke:#529DBA;stroke-width:43.3394;}.sankey_st3{fill:none;stroke:#9E0B0F;stroke-width:43.2205;}.sankey_st4{fill:none;stroke:#C9E3F0;stroke-width:32.9356;}.sankey_st5{fill:none;stroke:#C4161C;stroke-width:25.7383;}.sankey_st6{fill:none;stroke:#9CCDE4;stroke-width:24.2618;}.sankey_st7{fill:none;stroke:#9CCDE4;stroke-width:18.109;}.sankey_st8{fill:#E6E7E8;stroke:#C4161C;stroke-width:16.5673;}.sankey_st9{fill:none;stroke:#DF897C;stroke-width:15.8813;}.sankey_st10{fill:none;stroke:#EFC8B8;stroke-width:13.6348;}.sankey_st11{fill:none;stroke:#C9E3F0;stroke-width:10.0342;}.sankey_st12{fill:none;stroke:#DF897C;stroke-width:9.4601;}.sankey_st13{fill:none;stroke:#EFC8B8;stroke-width:2.677;}.sankey_st14{fill:#9D9FA2;}.sankey_st15{fill:none;stroke:#000000;stroke-width:0.4868;stroke-miterlimit:10;}.sankey_st16{fill:none;stroke:#000000;stroke-width:0.3965;stroke-miterlimit:10;}.sankey_st17{font-family:Benton Sans Condensed,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;}.sankey_st18{font-size:15px;}.sankey_st19{fill:none;}.sankey_st20{font-family:Benton Sans Condensed,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-weight:bold;}.sankey_st21{font-family:Benton Sans Condensed,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;}.sankey_st22{fill:#FFFFFF;}.sankey_st23{font-size:13px;}.sankey_st24{font-family:Benton Sans Condensed,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;}.sankey_st25{font-family:Benton Sans Condensed,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-weight:bold;}.sankey_st26{font-size:12px;}Iran-affiliated active researchers who migrated20,351 of 59,870(1996–Present)Migratory 6675Transitory 13,676Transits out of Iran To U.S.1516To elsewhere2545From U.S.429From elsewhere2185Based mainly in U.S.2902Based mainlyelsewhere3888Went to U.S.1608Went elsewhere5278Out of Iran Into Iran 2614Transits to Iran 679068864061(Graphics)G. Grullón/Science; (Data)Elsevier’s Scopus database